Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in the Pamir Mountains.
The Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate Tajikistan’s landscape. The western Fergana Valley is in north, and the Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys are in the southwest.
The country’s lowest point is at Syr Darya (300 m), and its highest point is at Qullai Ismoili Somoni (7,495 m).
The region covering today’s Tajikistan was part the of Persian empires for much of its history. This region has been an important place for flourishing Persian culture and language.
In recent history, Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence from the USSR in 1991. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997 and implemented in 2000. The central government’s less than total control over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace. In recent years, Unemployment has been fought by the government with a huge success, though the country has been unable to cope up with the problems left behind of the civil war. Today, most prospects of change are clearly being evident to help recover the country, though much of these measures are proving to be inefficient and unfulfilling.