The history of Pakistan traces back to the beginnings of human life in South Asia. Pakistan is home to the Indus Valley civilization, which is amongst the oldest in the world.
Prior to the 1900s the area of Pakistan was the area from which the Muslims ruled over Central and Southern Asia for over 300 years. Today Pakistan is made up of people from various races including Arabs from after the Islamic expeditions, Persians from Bukhara and Samarkand, Turks from Central Asia and the native Sindhus who were converted to Islam.
The official name of Pakistan was used after the partition of (British) India into the two nation-states of India and Pakistan in 1947. However, the word Pakistan was first used by Ch. Rehmat Ali back in 1933 in his declaration, Now or Never – calling for its separation from the Empire. Afterwards, British-ruled India was divided into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and India. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Jammu and Kashmir is ongoing between India and Pakistan.
The current issues facing modern Pakistan are conflict with India, corruption and a negative view of democracy.
Pakistan is one of those few countries in the world which has every kind of geological structure. It has the sea, desert (Sindh & Punjab), green mountains (North West Province), dry mountains (Balochistan), mountains covered with ice, rivers, rich land to cultivate (Punjab & Sindh), water resources, water falls, forests etc. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan contain the mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakoram, and the Hindu Kush. Pakistan’s highest point is K2, at 8,611m which is the second highest peak in the world. The Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain whose rivers eventually join the Indus River and flow south to the Arabian Sea. Sindh lies between the Thar Desert the Rann of Kutch to the east, and the Kirthar range to the west. The Balochistan Plateau is arid and surrounded by dry mountains. Pakistan experiences frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe, especially in north and west.
Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north. Flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August). Fertile and sub humid heat in the Punjab region. Seasonal climate and daily weather
Sacrifice of imam Hussain(A.S) – takes place on 10th of Muharam the first month of Hijera Calander(Islamic Calendar), public gathers across the country to show support to the cause of grandson of Prophet Muhammad, Seminars, rallies, procession(Matmi Jaloos), majalis etc are organized on this day.Only done by Shias.
Eid-ul-Fitr – the largest holiday of the year, it celebrates the start of the holy month of Shawwal. Food is the highlight, and if you’re lucky you’ll be invited into a private home for a feast. Businesses close for at least a couple days if not a week.
Eid-ul-Azha – the festival of sacrifice, commemorates Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son
Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi – Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W), varies according to Hijera calendar
Pakistan Day – March 23
Labour Day – 1 May
Independence Day – 14 Aug
Quaid-e-Azam’s deathday – 11 Sep
Quaid-e-Azam’s birthday – 25 Dec
Ramadan – the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar. Muslims fast every day for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk. Nothing (including water and cigarettes) is supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Foreigners and travellers are exempt from this, but you should still refrain from doing it in public.